Gland of internal secretion, which is is one of the important elements of the endocrine system of the human body that synthesizes a number needed to maintain homeostasis hormones, called the thyroid. This symmetrical body consists of isthmus and two equal shares. Its weight is in the normal state is 20 to 65 grams.
In the thyroid gland are synthesized two iodine-containing hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) and peptide hormone (calcitonin). In the tissues of the body accumulate the amino acid tyrosine, which is then deposited and stored in the form of a special protein (thyroglobulin).
The hormones produced by the thyroid gland are the main regulators of homeostasis. They are directly involved in major metabolic processes in tissues and organs.
Diseases of the thyroid gland is considered one of the most common disorders in the endocrine system. The number of cases of them is ahead of the diabetes mellitus. Annually marked increase in the number of diseases by 5%.
The main reasons for the development of thyroid cancer:
• poor environmental conditions;
• insufficient iodine in the diet;
• genetic disorders.
Diagnosis of thyroid disease includes the following methods:
• the laboratory.
Palpation allows to determine the size of the gland, its consistency, the presence of nodules. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay allows to determine the exact concentration of thyroid hormones in the blood. Also used ultrasound, computed tomography, thermography, nuclear imaging, fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The most rapid method of diagnosis - the Express-test levels in the blood produced by the thyroid gland hormones.
Depending on the peculiarities of changes in the functional activity of the organ all diseases of the thyroid gland can be divided into three groups:
• increased synthesis and secretion of hormones (hyperthyroidism);
• reducing the synthesis of hormones and lowering their concentration in the blood (hypothyroidism);
• morphological changes in the structure of the body (goiter, nodes, hyperplasia, etc.).
Symptoms of hypothyroidism: weakness, fatigue, memory impairment, reduced efficiency, swelling, sensitivity to cold, rapid weight gain, dry skin, brittle and dull hair.
Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis: the temper and irritability, weight loss, palpitations, sweating, insomnia, increased body temperature.
Morphological changes: the increase in the body, the formation of diffuse or nodular goiter).
Today, the treatment of endocrinological disorders remains a complex and lengthy process. Generally, Hyper - or hypothyroidism, the patient acceptance rate medical himiopreparatov (triiodothyronine, thyroxine) in combination with inorganic iodine (thyreocomb, tireotom, jodthyrox). The reception of these drugs allows to compensate for the lack of own hormones and appointed, usually for life. This method has many disadvantages, chief among which is addictive and life on tablets. To normalize and maintain the condition of the patient is also used thyreostatics: tyrosol, mercazole, propinyl, diyodtirosin. Medicines should be prescribed only by a endocrinologist. During disturbances in the thyroid gland self-medication can be dangerous. Only a specialist, after conducting a number of tests and examinations can prescribe the correct treatment. In each case requires a particular drug!
The most stressful for the patient's treatment diseases of the thyroid gland - surgery (thyroidectomy resection). Operations are mandatory to be held in the presence of a malignant neoplasm, difficulty breathing and swallowing. Very high risk of developing postoperative complications (removal of the parathyroid glands, the voice nerves etc). Surgery on the thyroid gland dooms man to life taking hormones.