Baldness or alopecia is a pathological process of hair loss, leading to thinning and drop them on different parts of the head, limbs and torso. Depending on the cause of baldness, there are these types of:
1. Androgenetic - the most common type, accounting for about 95 percent of baldness in men. For this reason it is often called male-pattern baldness. In its formation the main role played by hormones (androgens), and some genetic factors. Numerous studies have shown that the nature of hair loss has a significant role heredity, both the paternal and maternal lines. The mechanism of development of baldness is quite simple: the 5-alpha reductase - an enzyme found in the cells of hair follicles, acts on testosterone which is then converted into 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (active hormone). This hormone enters the cell and in several biochemical reactions causing disruption of protein synthesis. The end result is the transformation of normal (hard) vellus hair. These male hormones affect the follicles that are sensitive to them, and they, in turn, reduced in size and moved closer to the skin surface, and therefore lose the ability to producing healthy hair, atrophy and completely dissolve. This mechanism of hair loss is the same in both sexes. To 50 years, 25% of women also noted alopecia in androgenetic type.
Signs of such hair loss:
- hypopigmentation (change hair color);
slowing of hair growth;
- increased fat and thinning of hair.
It is believed that the medication of this type of baldness is almost ineffective, but there are tools that can stimulate hair growth. Minoxidil for hair allows you to save not yet resorbed hair follicles and stimulates the regrowth of hair, both men and women.
Androgenetic alopecia in people of different sexes has some peculiarities. So among men characterized by the appearance of the lesions in the parietal, makuleke and frontal areas. Baldness in women has other clinical manifestations. Usually, the focus of hair thinning, which has an oval shape, is located in the Central-parietal region. Its characteristic feature is the increase of "parting" in the center of the crown.
2. Diffuse alopecia: differs from other types of alopecia hair loss all over the head. On the degree of thinning is influenced by such factors: hormonal imbalance, deficiency, disorders of homeostasis (polycystic ovaries, pregnancy, surgery, inflammatory diseases in the chronic form, thyroid cancer), radiation, starvation, certain medications. This baldness is often reversible and requires treatment under supervision of doctor, trichologist. In this type of baldness hair transplantation do not produce.
3. Cicatricial alopecia: it is typical for people who have suffered burns, surgery, injuries and some diseases of the skin in which there is substitution of hair follicles scar (connective) tissue. Hair restoration without surgical intervention, in this case, it is impossible. Treatment - hair transplant patient.
4. Alopecia areata: refers to chronic dermatosis, which is manifested by hair loss with one or more foci of alopecia. The lesions can appear not only on the head, and the limbs and torso. The reasons for the development of this alopecia is not fully understood. When confirming the diagnosis appoint conservative treatment. In this case, hair transplantation is not appointed.