The menisci of the knee joint have important roles to play: play the role of a shock absorber, taking part in the diet of hyaline cartilage, helps stabilize the knee joint. There are two menisci: internal (medial) and outer (lateral). They both consist of fibrous cartilage. The meniscus is divided into three parts: body, front and rear horn. Based on this, is a division of meniscus injuries on several types: damage to the body (longitudinal, transverse, horizontal, flap gap and so on), damage to the posterior or the anterior horn, and pericapsular damage. Injury meniscus is the most common type of pathology of the knee joint, especially in athletes.
The clinical picture of the damaged meniscus distinguishes between acute and chronic period. The first occurs immediately after injury and is accompanied by severe pain in the knee. Because of this limited movement of the knee joint, and sometimes its blockade of the tibia is fixed in a position of flexion. The acute phase is characterized by the occurrence of bleeding into the cavity of the knee joint, which leads to swelling of this area.
However, it happens that it is not always doctors diagnose an injury to the meniscus or take this injury for injury or sprain. Conservative treatment of injuries of the meniscus contributes to the improvement of the knee joint, but after some time (when renewed activity, or simply with an awkward movement) again there is a violation of the knee, the pain, accumulates in the synovial fluid in the joint. Then talk about chronic disease.The diagnosis of meniscus injury is to collect anamnesis, clinical examination and application of instrumental methods. Today the most informative and less invasive way of imaging is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (ultrasound).
The treatment of damaged menisci can be conservative or surgical. First aid consists of anesthesia or puncture of a joint to drain accumulated liquid. However, with the help of plaster latent bandages, provides immobilization (immobilization) for 3-4 weeks. The patient is prescribed a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and some time after physical therapy.
If conservative treatment is not able to solve the problem, is assigned to surgical treatment of injuries of the meniscus. Today, the most effective in this case is arthroscopic surgery. This is a closed, minimally invasive way, implying 2 puncture 0.5 cm in the cavity of the knee joint. Through them, the arthroscope is introduced and the necessary tools. This treatment is traumatic and involves rapid recovery of the patient.
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After surgery, the patient will need to use a knee brace, the doctor prescribes a specific exercise that will help to restore the knee.