Hypothyroidism is the most common disease of the endocrine system, characterized by low content in the body of the thyroid hormones (endocrine) glands. The disease occurs when violations of the proper functioning of the thyroid gland or pathological processes that affect the metabolism of hormones in the body. At the extreme form of illness in adults occurs makedama, and the children cretinism.
Causes of hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism distinguish two stages: primary and secondary.
The primary hypothyroidism is characterized by low levels of hormone secretion of the glands of internal secretion in the pathological process that occurs in the thyroid gland.
In secondary hypothyroidism, a deficiency in the production of many hormones of the endocrine glands is due to the pathological process in the hypothalamic-pituitary system, which regulates the thyroid gland.
Primary hypothyroidism develops in several ways:
Alteraciones - occurs when harmful effects on the body (tissue damage of the thyroid gland, radiation, medical, temperature and others).
Iodine deficiency - iodine is included in the chemical composition of the hormones of the endocrine glands, and in case of its absence in the body, the thyroid gland is unable to produce the right amount of hormones.
Primary hypothyroidism can be congenital and acquired.
Congenital hypothyroidism is the result of inherited defects of enzymes necessary for the assimilation of iodine, the gland of internal secretion, as well as in its absence.
Causes of acquired primary hypothyroidism can be:
The removal of the thyroid gland during surgery;
The radiation exposure or radiation exposure to organs of the neck;
The use of radioactive iodine in the treatment;
Inflammatory processes in the thyroid gland;
The use of drugs containing lithium, adrenal hormones, iodides, as well as a high intake of vitamin A.
Secondary hypothyroidism occurs as a result of diseases of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, which leads to the reduction of functional activity of the glands of internal secretion.
The main symptoms of hypothyroidism:
- obesity, yellowness of the skin, regular feeling cold due to slow metabolism;
- swelling around the eyes, hearing loss, shortness of breath, hiplot voice;
- memory loss, drowsiness, slowed mental processes (thinking, emotional reactions, speech);
- nausea, vomiting, gallstones, constipation;
- loss of hair, brittle nails with longitudinal and transverse grooves;
disturbed menstrual cycle.
If you have symptoms of hypothyroidism, you must contact the center for endocrinology, Moscow or another city, where endocrinologist will examine you and prescribe the right survey (hormones, ultrasound), after that will guide treatment.
The main goal of treatment of hypothyroidism is maintaining a constant level of hormones of the endocrine glands within the normal range.
Treatment of hypothyroidism spend thyroid hormones or iodine, taking into account individual peculiarities of the organism. Medications depending on the cause of the disease can be prescribed for a few months, years or throughout their life.