Today, heart disease is one of the main causes of death in people aged over 50 years. Improper diet and lifestyle, unfavorable environmental conditions lead to pathological changes in the condition of blood vessels, which in turn affects the blood supply to the heart causing serious cardiovascular disease.
The most common disease causing changes in vessels, atherosclerosis. This disease causes narrowing of blood vessels, causing the heart muscle (myocardium) receives less oxygen. While in ischemia, heart worse copes with its functions and after some time the person has coronary heart disease. The narrowing of blood vessels is the cause of myocardial infarction and angina.
In modern medicine to eliminate stenosis successfully applied stenting. This malotravmaticheskaya operation, allowing to increase the lumen of the artery and restore blood flow. Is coronary sanirovanie in conjunction with angioplasty (widening of the vessel using a balloon). Because after angioplasty in about half of patients are re-narrowing of the vessel, the stent placement significantly reduces the risk of restenosis.
A stent is a tiny metal tube composed of cells. It is placed in the lumen of the artery expands and supports its walls, to prevent re-narrowing. Today, there are about 400 species of stents made of different metals having different design of the cells and the surface coating. Usually, there are wire, circular, tubular and mesh coronary stents.
The stent placement is performed in a specially equipped room, under local anesthesia. The surgery is performed under x-ray control. Through a blood vessel in the arm or thigh introduced a special catheter-conductor, which is equipped with a pressurized spray and mounted on the stent. To reach the desired area of the artery, the balloon is inflated, expanding the vessel and pressed the stent to its walls. After this, the balloon deflated and together with the catheter-guidewire is removed from the artery. The operation takes from 45 minutes to 3 hours. The number of stents depends on the size of the damaged vessel.
Stenting is a relatively safe operation. But after it there is a small risk of complications. May cause damage to the walls of the vessel, bleeding or hematoma formation at the puncture site, and allergic reaction to the contrast agent. Therefore, after surgery, to prevent complications, the patient takes some time to be in the hospital.
The apparent simplicity of operation and bloodless, its high efficiency and short postoperative period make stenting extremely popular method of solving the problem of cardiovascular diseases.