Sinusitis

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses.

The maxillary sinuses are called pneumatic cavities, which occupy almost the entire body in the thickness of the maxillary bone. Their purpose in the alignment of the atmospheric pressure and the pressure generated in the cavity formations of the skull. This function is called barafundle. In addition they perform resonator function, that is formed voice, and feature air conditioning and others. Ducts maxillary sinuses extend into the nasal cavity. Inside they are lined with adjacent bone mucosa.

There are two types of sinusitis: acute and chronic. During acute sinusitis inflammation covers the mucous membrane and loose tissue and blood vessels that are under it.

Chronic sinusitis is a defeat basis under the mucous membrane and the bone wall of the maxillary cavity. Chronic sinusitis is often due to not cured in a timely manner acute sinusitis.

Infectious agents penetrate into the cavity in different ways. From the way of penetration depends on the type of sinusitis. Thus, different rhinogenic sinusitis (infection come from the nasal cavity), which mainly occurs in adults, hematogenous sinusitis (the pathogen enters through the blood), odontogenic sinusitis (inflammation of the teeth of the upper jaw is the causative agent of infection) and traumatic sinusitis.

There are the following types of sinusitis:

Infectious sinusitis (bacterial, fungal, viral);

Allergic sinusitis;

Vasomotor sinusitis;

Chronic sinusitis, which is accompanied by formation of pus;

Productive sinusitis, in which are formed polyps and other growths of the mucous membrane inside the sinus;

Necrotizing sinusitis, which causes necrosis of the tissue in the sinus;

Atrophic maxillary sinusitis, during which atrophies the mucous membrane of the sinuses;

Mucus production in humans occurs in the paranasal sinuses, then the mucus excreted into the nasal cavity. When the clogging of the exit orifice of the maxillary sinus is the accumulation of mucus in the cavity and, as a consequence, inflammation and the occurrence of sinusitis.

The cause of the obstruction may be acute respiratory infections, during which swells and becomes inflamed mucosa of the nose, chronic rhinitis, during which thickens the mucous membrane of the nose. In any case, the natural cleansing process of the sinuses is broken, and they occur and breed germs. This leads to enhanced production of mucus, and then there is formation of pus.

Often, the cause of sinusitis is the infection. The infectious agents can be Haemophilus influenzae, chlamydia, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and various types of fungi. They all can get into gaymorovu cavity through the nasal cavity or blood.

Disorders in the immune system of a person;

Undue interference with the occurrence of colds, rhinitis, acute respiratory infections and patients teeth, as well as their improper treatment;

Vasomotor rhinitis, hypertrophic rhinitis, shortness of nasal breathing in adults and adenoids and allergic diseases of the nose in children;

Anomalies of the nasal cavity from birth;

Hypothermia, especially in conditions of high humidity;

Congenital and acquired a deviated septum of the nose;

Allergic diseases;

Infectious diseases such as influenza, scarlet fever, measles, and others;

Infectious chronic lesions in the nasal and oral cavity: chronic pharyngitis, tonsillitis, rhinitis and adenoids;

The risk of sinusitis often have for the season "autumn-winter". Young people are more likely to have sinusitis than the elderly;

Classic symptoms of sinusitis are nasal and purulent nasal discharge, feeling of heaviness on both sides of the nose, pain, reduced sense of smell, fever, does not exceed the threshold 38 degrees, headaches and weakness throughout the body.

Chronic sinusitis presents with pain in the head, blocked nose and fatigue.

When sinusitis pain is poorly expressed in the morning and increases in the evening. If this person is constantly accompanied by an unpleasant feeling of heaviness or, rarely, pain in the cheeks and nose. Cheeks priuchayut, swollen and red eyelids to the affected sinus areas of the face. Sometimes sinusitis is accompanied by photophobia and lacrimation.

In addition, when the sinusitis person constantly shivering, he is weak and tires easily, suffers from insomnia, he reduced sense of smell, constantly stuffy nose, which appear transparent allocation in the form of mucus or purulent discharge is yellow or green in color. A person loses his appetite and starts eating poorly.

Acute sinusitis, depending on the severity, can last from 2 weeks to 2 months.

The main symptom of chronic sinusitis is nocturnal dry cough, which is not amenable to conventional treatment. It arises from the fact that the pus drains from the infection of the sinus on the posterior pharyngeal wall.

Diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis performs ENT doctor.

The flow of sinusitis is often accompanied by formation of pus, which can be accessed from the maxillary cavity directly into the surrounding tissue. In this case affects the eyes, teeth, passing close to the nerves, and in severe cases there is a risk of lesion of meninges.

In acute, but more often in chronic sinusitis complications inside the skull, such as swelling of the meninges, meningitis, phlebitis sinus membranes of the brain with subsequent development Finogenova sepsis, rhinogenic brain abscess, encephalitis, pachymeninges.

In addition to the above complications, there is the risk of reactive tissue edema of the eyelids and orbit, retrobulbar abscess, osteoperiostitis the eye socket vein thrombosis sockets, periostitis or osteomylitis upper jaw, ear or evstaheit, as well as the occurrence of other diseases.

Due to chronic sinusitis often have sore throat, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, dental disease and osteomyelitis of the maxilla. Acute sinusitis causes neuritis of the trigeminal nerve.

It should be noted that with timely and proper treatment of sinusitis the risk of such complications is low.

In order to avoid complications, it is necessary to start the fight with a runny nose from the early days of its occurrence. Preventive measures consist in increasing immunity through hardening, perform exercise and workout, and also we should not forget about the walks in the fresh air, during which you should try not to overcool.

Diseases of the nose, which cause the violation of nasal breathing, such as a deviated septum, chronic rhinitis should be treated in a timely manner. People suffering from acute rhinitis, are advised not to blow your nose hard, as this may cause the release of mucus from the nose in the maxillary sinus.

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