Violations of the depth, rhythm and frequency of breathing, accompanied by a feeling of lack of air, referred to as shortness of breath. This pathology usually associated with impaired respiratory function, in keeping involving cardiac system, lungs, diaphragm, spinal nerves, respiratory center, the cerebral cortex. When the nervous regulation of respiratory function is not broken, shortness of breath becomes a compensatory nature (it is aimed at the removal of excess carbon dioxide and replenish the lack of oxygen). Central type shortness of breath usually associated with damage to the respiratory centre or disorder of the regulation of respiration. When hysterical neurosis shortness of breath manifests sharp tachypnea (it's a shallow and rapid breathing to 70 breaths per minute). In this case, the physician's task is to calm the patient (need to get him to hold his breath, and then breathe slowly and deeply). At the same time used sedatives (solution of pipolphen, tincture of Valerian).
Damage to the respiratory centre, particularly during intoxication with drugs or drugs means, showing the rhythm of breathing, decrease its frequency and depth, oppression. In such cases it means that stimulate the respiratory center (aminophylline with glucose solution or kordiamin intravenously).
When diaphragmatic breathing disorders dyspnea occurs in case of violation of the mobility of the diaphragm (chest pain, scoliosis, kyphosis, flatulence, and so on) or as a result of accumulation in the pleural cavity of a large amount of exudate (for example, when hydrothorax). This increases the respiratory rate, and its depth decreases. As a result of physical exertion develops tachypnea. Diagnose such dyspnea with clinical manifestations of the underlying process (scoliosis, kyphosis, distended abdomen, and so forth). Accordingly, the treatment is focused on relief of the underlying disease (hydrothorax is a puncture of the pleura, in the case of flatulence - installation of the venting pipes and so on).
Pulmonary shortness of breath is usually associated with insufficient elongation and reduction of the surface of the lung tissue, the movement of gases in the alveoli and bronchial obstruction (impaired patency). Restrictive shortness of breath (it occurs when the fibrosis, pneumosclerosis lungs) is characterized by a short breath and bad breath. Lung capacity decreases, the depth of the breath becomes limited, are highly borders of the lungs. Often when listening to the lungs audible wheezing.
In diffuse lung failure in combination with pneumosclerosis shortness of breath usually sharp, combined with tachypnea. In addition, it is noted the so-called "black" cyanosis of the mucous membranes and skin. Cyanosis and shortness of breath during physical exertion increases. The treatment of this disease aims to eliminate the causes of shortness of breath, and includes oxygen inhalation (along with a number of other medical procedures).
Most often, the shortness of breath is associated with impaired patency and bronchospasm due to their obstruction by mucus or edema. As these figures change frequently changing nature of dyspnea, sometimes it actually comes to the point of suffocation, and other days it disappears completely. While exhaling difficult and longer, symptoms of emphysema. In asthma during auscultation on the exhale clearly audible dry crackling rales.
Shows the use of bronchodilatory drugs (aminophylline, teofedrin, belladonna, ephedrine). If poorly separated sputum, prescribe expectorants.
It should be remembered that patients suffering from lung and heart disease shortness of breath often mixed type (for example, because of hydrothorax, ascites, flatulence may be complicated by cardiac dyspnea) and this should be considered when prescribing treatment.