Some areas of the double helix of human DNA was formerly known as "genetic garbage". Currently 450 scientists from different countries of the planet identified as such "junk parts" of the genome is actually essential for body development, these areas are responsible, apparently, for the possibility of the occurrence of many serious diseases.
These findings were published by researchers within five years studying full "map" of the human genome, composed in 2003. It was previously considered to be only 2% of the genome responsible for the production of proteins important in the whole structure of the nucleotides in the molecule. On other stretches of DNA, scientists did not pay attention, considering that they are not carriers of important functions. Now, researchers from the project "Encod" (ENCODE - stands for the initial letters of the phrase "the encyclopedia of DNA elements") has identified more than 80% of the DNA molecules.
To identify what the double helix molecule dezoribonukleinovoi acid controls the most complex operations, at the moment, scientists have not succeeded. They believe that this information is located in the intervals between genes, says the BBC Russian service, with reference to Nature. Genes are small areas of the DNA molecule that contains the settings for the cells of the human body on which the protein chemicals those required to synthesize. Based upon the analysis of 3 billion pairs of genes that are part of the DNA double helix, scientists realized that "junk" molecules are not useless.
Specialists found in DNA "switches" genes that enable or disable in the cells of certain genes. This discovery will help to develop new treatments for heart disease, diabetes and mental disorders, says J. Byrne. In the study, the results of which are referred to as a breakthrough in genetics, was attended by scientists from 32 laboratories Spain, Singapore, Japan, UK and USA.