Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum, which covers the abdominal cavity and the organs in which it is located. Delay in treatment of this disease can cause death.
The occurrence of inflammation in the peritoneum may be associated with bacterial infection or exposure to aggressive non-infectious factors. We are talking about blood, bile, gastric juice, urine, etc.
In most cases, peritonitis develops as a result of processes such as perforation or destruction of the organs in the abdomen (appendicitis rupture of the diverticulum of the colon, intestinal obstruction, acute pancreatitis, and so on). Consequently, in the abdominal cavity gets pus or stool. A more rare cause of peritonitis is a penetrating wound of the abdomen with infection from the outside. Sometimes peritonitis develops due to hematogenous spread of infection from other foci in the body.
Peritonitis is a primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary form of the disease is associated with the entrance of microbes into the abdominal cavity from the environment. It should be noted that with primary peritonitis face quite rare. His diagnosis occurs during laparotomy. Is characterized by the identification of pus, which has no odor and visible source. Secondary peritonitis develops due to damage or inflammation of the organ, which is located in the abdominal cavity. When the tertiary peritonitis there is an inflammatory reaction of the peritoneum on the introduction of microorganisms and their toxins. Finally, in the abdominal cavity is formed purulent exudate.
For clinical peritonitis is characterized by severe and rapid development. The symptoms of this pathological process consists of a sharp pain in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, rapid rise of temperature, the weight loss. The stomach becomes painful and hard. In some cases, decreases blood pressure. In the bloodstream, there is an increase in the number of cells. X-ray examination reveals abnormal loops of bowel. In the vertical position of the patient determine the air under the diaphragm. This feature acts as a specific symptom of organ perforation having a hollow structure.
The diagnosis of peritonitis is confirmed by ultrasound examination, blood count, review x-rays of the abdomen. In some cases it is necessary to conduct a diagnostic laparoscopy or laparotomy, as well as other studies. It is worth considering the great danger of peritonitis for life. Refusing medical care and conduct of diagnostic procedures contributes to a significant deterioration of the forecast.
It must be remembered that pain when peritonitis is not stopped by antispasmodics. Therefore, the slightest manifestation of symptoms is cause for immediate treatment to the doctor. This is because timely treatment of peritonitis play a crucial role in the salvation of man.
Note that peritonitis is characterized by the severity and rapid progression. Therefore, the diagnosis, hospitalization and appropriate treatment should be conducted in the first twelve hours of the time when the disease started. For treatment of peritonitis affects the reason that called it. In most cases, in such situations, the use of surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. The post-operative period provides treatment of the patient in the intensive care unit.