Oligophrenia called dementia congenital or early acquired character. For this disease is characterized by underdevelopment of the psyche and intellect. As a rule, mental retardation is a consequence of the previous pathology.
The disease may be due to the following reasons:
1. Genetic predisposition.
2. The defeat of the fetus in the womb. We are talking about hormonal disorders, viral infections, congenital syphilis, etc.
3. Pathology perinatal period and the first years of a child's life (rhesus conflict, a head injury, intrauterine asphyxia, infections of childhood hydrocephalus etc).
This disease is represented by 3 species:
1. The idiocy. When this pathology is observed almost complete absence of speech and thought processes. Idiots are not able to act intelligently. These patients carry out the pronunciation only individual sounds and words. Characterized by the inability to self-service.
2. The imbecile. This disorder is considered medium severity degree of mental retardation. The Imbeciles can take care of himself and perform simple exercises. Marked attachment to the native people and adequate reaction to criticism or praise. Thinking of such patients is a primitive character.
3. Debilnosti. We are talking about the most mild dementia. Morons can live independently. Their thinking is specifically descriptive. There is a lack of capacity for abstraction. It is worth noting that some morons, despite impaired mental development and low productivity of thinking, characterized by a partial talent.
Diagnosis of mental retardation
The difficulties in identifying the disease is associated with the need for differential diagnosis with early schizophrenia. In schizophrenic patients have a partial, disseminated developmental delay. In addition, schizophrenia is manifested autism, pathological fantasy and catatonic symptoms.
The mental retardation must be distinguished from acquired dementia. This disease is manifested by a variety of emotional symptoms, a relatively rich vocabulary, preserved propensity for abstract thinking.
When the mental retardation dened causal factors is specific treatment. The presence of diseases caused by disorders of metabolism, provides for the appointment of diet. Pathology of the endocrine system (cretinism) is an indication to perform hormonal treatment. To stimulate mental activity, use piracetam, linoleum and other psychoactivity drugs. Moreover, the vitamin.
Correction affective lability and suppression of perverse inclinations accept the use of neuleptil, phenazepam, sonapaks, etc. is Also of great importance in the fight against this pathology has a therapeutic and educational activities. Typically, the mentally deficient are taught in the secondary schools, specialized vocational schools, boarding schools, and so on, these institutions contribute to the rehabilitation and adaptation of patients in society.
Preventing mental retardation consists of the following activities:
1. The screening of pregnant women for the presence in the organism of syphilis and toxoplasmosis infection.
2. Prevent the development of viral infections during pregnancy.
3. Qualified medical assistance during childbirth.