Menopause is a gradual cessation of menstruation. It is characterized by the subsequent almost complete extinction of the endocrine activity of the ovaries, accompanied by General age-related changes. The occurrence of menopause is due to functional changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system.
In some cases, menopause occurs prematurely (before the age of 40). This may be due to unfavorable conditions of work and life, frequent childbirth and abortion, massive blood loss during childbirth, chronic infectious processes. Late menopause occurs when the arterial hypertension and the presence of uterine myoma node (fibroids). In women at puberty sudden cessation of menstruation may be due to mental trauma, and prolonged emotional tension.
The first phase of the menopausal period is called the pre-menopausal women. It is characterized by the rhythm of the menstrual cycle. Many women there is a gradual increase in the interval between menstruation and decreased intensity of bleeding. As a rule, pre-menopausal women is observed in 45 years. It lasts about 5 years before the time when menstruation stops completely (menopause).
The second phase of menopause is called postmenopause. There is the extinction of endocrine ovarian function after cessation of the menstrual discharge. After this phase is determined by the physiological rest of the female reproductive system.
Menopause is characterized by the appearance of specific violations:
1. Vasomotor disorders. We are talking about hot flushes, sweating, fluctuations in blood pressure, tachycardia.
2. Violations emotional and mental nature. These include irritability, sleep disorders, development of depression, tearfulness.
3. Urogenital changes. Post-menopause is characterized by dryness of the vulva and the vaginal mucosa, as well as frequent urination.
The severity of menopause depends on the frequency of hot flushes. In the mild form is observed in less than 10 flushes per day. For moderate severity is characterized by increased tidal up to 20 times per day, as well as dizziness and tachycardia. In severe menopause celebrate more than 20 flushes per day, severe fluctuations in HELL, the appearance of weakness, loss of ability to work.
As a rule, the diagnosis of climacteric syndrome does not cause special difficulties. This is due to the fact that its characteristic symptoms occur at a certain age and coincide with the disorder of the menstrual cycle and the cessation of menstrual discharge. In case of concomitant diseases, diagnosis of menopause can be difficult. In this case, use special techniques that help to explore the functional condition of the ovaries:
1. Histological examination of scraping the lining of the uterus.
3. WFD uterus.
In milder forms of arthritis can be limited to sedatives, antihypertensive agents and blockers. Recommended Smoking cessation, gymnastics, and limiting consumption of foods rich in fats and carbohydrates.
In some cases, treatment of menopause involves the use of specially designed estrogens and gestagens. Their use without the advice of a doctor is prohibited. This is because hormone therapy is characterized by different contraindications (uterine bleeding, uterine tumors, a history of thrombophlebitis, arterial hypertension and other).