United Nations development Fund for assistance to children UNICEF reports that in 2011 the main causes of infant mortality were the same as in previous years. Meanwhile, infant mortality could be reduced through efforts by government measures.
The UNICEF report says that the two main causes of child mortality on the planet are diarrhea and pneumonia, which claimed the lives of 29 percent. All the dead kids not reached the age of 5 years.
The authors of the report for comparison are the mortality from such diseases as AIDS and malaria. From these diseases die each year from 2 percent and 7 percent of all deaths of children.
Almost half of child deaths from diarrhoea and pneumonia accounted for by 5 countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and Ethiopia.
The high level of deaths among children observed in 75 countries around the world. The authors of the report shows that deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea could be reduced and, significantly, if the governments of the countries listed above, the provision of health care to the children respected the principle of equal approach. In other words, children from poor segments of the population should also get medical assistance to the same extent as children whose parents are wealthy citizens.
UNICEF appeals to the leaders of the planet is about ensuring that children have equal access to vaccination against pathogens that cause pneumonia and diarrhoea, normal drinking water quality, as well as the necessary antibiotics and rehydration solutions upon detection of intestinal infections in children.
The fulfillment of the above requirements will give the possibility to 2015 child mortality from these diseases reduce approximately two million cases per year.
"Almost 90 percent of deaths caused by diarrhea, occurred as a result of the shortage of clean drinking water, and lack of the opportunity to observe basic rules of sanitation and hygiene," say the authors of the document.