Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant violation of the circulatory system, accompanied by the growth of the number of immature cells (lymphoblasts). This disease is quite frequent malignant disease in childhood and adolescence. Often this disease occurs in boys. ALL affects the bone marrow, lymph nodes, thyroid gland, spleen, and other organs.
Cause ALL are chromosomal aberration (deviation from the norm), although the exact factors causing the development of the disease is unclear. The study of occurrence of the disease is complicated by the large number of subtypes of the disease, developing under the influence of various factors.
By type of course of ALL there are two forms - In-line and T-line (depends on the type of lymphoid precursors). The clinical symptoms of ALL include the following syndromes:
• intoxication (weakness, malaise, weight loss);
• hyperplastic (lymph node enlargement);
• anemia (pallor, weakness, nausea);
• respiratory disorders.
For diagnostic confirmation of ALL the number of blast cells in the spinal tap should not exceed 30%.
Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is carried out in several ways.
Chemotherapeutic treatment method is ALL based on the use of potent drugs that can destroy cancer tumors or slow down their development. Drugs are introduced into the body orally or intravenously. This method of treatment is called systemic chemotherapy. If drugs are injected directly into the affected organ, such a method is called regional chemotherapy. The method of application of treatment depending on the degree of development of the disease.
Another way ALL treatment - radiation therapy, which uses various kinds of radiation to slow the growth and destruction of malignant tumors. Apply external and internal methods of irradiation.
Now explores new methods of treatment are being tested in clinical conditions. One of the new methods is considered biotherapy.