In 1907, the German scholar H. Pieper first in the history of medicine used electromiography on the human body. He was able to detect bioelectric potentially muscles tested at their reduction. A little later within the time frame of scientists have perfected this method, adding to its ability to study the nervous system of the patient. The resulting electroneuromyography or ENMG was a combination of several technologies assessment of the neuromuscular system. Nowadays, the development of science and technology allows ENMG studies using the NCS system.
The diagnostic process includes :
- needle ENMG;
- stimulation ENMG.
Electroneuromyography allows to investigate the functionality of the neuromuscular system. Literally "electroneuromyography" means the recording of the electrical activity of muscles and nerves" This unique type of research helps to identify pathology in a specific area of the human body, to conduct topical and a differential diagnosis on the level of destruction of any complexity:
- the primary lesion muscles;
- synaptic lesions (abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission );
- traumatic injury;
- damage toxic and professional level;
- Central and conductor of the lesion;
- spinal segmental lesion;
- neuronal destruction.
ENMG, as a diagnostic method, is appointed by such experts as a neurologist, neurosurgeon, endocrinologist, rheumatologist and an orthopedist. If the patient has pain syndromes, the change (decrease, increase or distortion) of skin sensation in certain areas of the body; loss of strength, high fatigue, muscle weakness; restrictions or asymmetry of movement, bone and joint deformation, swelling, temperature changes, and skin color; the violation of the functions of urination and defecation - ENMG conduct mandatory.
In other words, the indications for the use of electroneuromyography are:
1) preclinical diagnosis of musculoskeletal deficits at an early stage;
2) development of motor deficits in infectious disease associated with damage to peripheral nerves or muscles;
3) evaluation of the dynamics of disorders of the peripheral nervous system, which provoked neuroinfection (or the evaluation of treatment effectiveness found in a patient with abnormalities in the peripheral nervous system).
The method is based electroneuromyography on the ability of the muscles to create electrical activity with each contraction. The main idea of this method is that the imposition of the discharge electrodes on the muscle, innervated by the studied nerve and subsequent stimulation of the nerve from the point where the nerve close to the body surface. Coming from muscle contractions are recorded with special sensors, and then made measurements of the speed of conduction of an electrical impulse along the nerves. It should be noted that using ENMG found pathological changes in the early asymptomatic stages of the disease.
Undoubtedly positive is the fact that the described technology research neuromuscular apparatus has almost no contraindications, except those that apply to patients with HIV infection (only to avoid contamination of medical personnel HIV when using needle electrodes).
The preparation for the procedure, the nerve conduction is very simple and requires almost no effort on the part of the patient. For 8-12 hours the doctor must prohibit upotreblenie drugs affecting neuromuscular transmission of the patient, at least 2 hours before the procedure researched not recommended to eat. Before diagnosis, the doctor will inform the patient about some unpleasant sensations that he will feel during the procedure.