Cancer of the jaw is a malignant neoplasm originating from bone or other structures odontogenic apparatus (soft and connective tissues, tooth primordia and bone marrow). As it grows, the tumor provokes serious functional disorders and the emergence of aesthetic defects. For this reason, the treatment of cancer of the jaw is a complicated task that requires consolidation of efforts of ophthalmologists, surgeons, otolaryngologists, neurosurgeons and other specialists.
The causes of cancer of the jaw
The main cause of cancer of the jaw is the malignant transformation and uncontrolled proliferation of normal cells, the loss of their ability to apoptosis. Among the factors that increase the risk of development of pathological process, include:
• the presence of papillomas, leukoplakia of the oral cavity, lejkokeratoz and other precancerous conditions;
• inflammatory processes;
• adverse external shocks (radioactive iodine therapy, Smoking, ionizing radiation and others).
Secondary tumors arise from metastasis of cancer of the prostate, kidney, breast or thyroid cancer, the local distribution of cancer of the tongue.
Symptoms of cancer of the jaw
The main signs of cancer of the jaw are:
• unbearable, radiating pain in the affected area;
• tooth mobility and loss;
• pathological fractures of the jaw bone;
• progressive infiltration of the soft tissues.
In addition, the clinical picture can be difficulty in opening and closing the teeth, headaches, nosebleeds, purulent rhinitis, impaired nasal breathing and the appearance of facial asymmetry.
Treatment of cancer of the jaw
When cancer of the jaw integrated treatment method involving:
• surgery (exarticulation or resection of the jaw, lymph node dissection, and others);
• radiation therapy or chemotherapy (in advanced cases);
• reconstructive surgery (if indicated);
• the rate of functional rehabilitation aimed at restoring the function of speech, swallowing, chewing.
To date, the prognosis of cancer of the jaw is extremely unfavorable. According to statistics, five-year survival rate of those who completed the course of treatment, less than 20%.