Atherosclerosis is called pathology, during which the walls of large and medium vessels have atheromas (plaques), which narrow the lumen of the vessel.
Despite the success of physicians in the treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system, atherosclerosis continues to be a cause of death or, at best, disability.
In the case of atherosclerosis damaged large and medium-sized arteries, which supply blood to the lower limbs, heart, kidneys, brain and other important organs. Progressive atherosclerosis causes the walls of blood vessels become thicker and lose their elasticity.
Today, there are two theories that explain the occurrence of atherosclerosis.
1. High cholesterol damages the arterial wall that leads to an inflammatory process. In addition, the walls accumulate cholesterol and other lipids.
2. Toxic effects or involvement of the immune system affect a repeated violation of the surface of the vascular wall. In any case, in violation of the integrity of blood vessels begin to Deposit lipids.
During the development of atherosclerosis begins inflammation, which involves white blood cells, monocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes. The activity of monocytes and their movement from the lumen of the vessel in the artery wall causes the development of atherosclerosis. Then, the monocytes are transformed into fat cells, which begin to accumulate cholesterol and other lipids.
More than accumulate lipids, the more increase the fat cells, resulting in arterial walls are formed of atheroma, which narrow the lumen of the arteries and make the thickness of the arterial wall.
The cause of atherosclerosis may be an infection that is caused by a number of bacteria, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, which is located usually in the lungs and causes pneumonia, or Helicobacter pylori, which is one of the causes of gastritis and gastric ulcers.
In this case, the infection also damages the walls of blood vessels, causing them to begin to put lipids, which leads to the development of atherosclerosis.
Atheroma most often occur in those areas of the arteries, which have the strongest hemodynamic load, which is formed as a result of turbulent blood flow. For example, dividing the area of the carotid and iliac arteries.
During the development of atherosclerosis arterial walls lose their elasticity. The more atheroma becomes, the more it narrows the lumen within the vessel. Over time, the atheroma seen the accumulation of calcium, which makes the wall more fragile and thin, thereby increasing its risk of being injured and torn. If the atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, it is very likely the occurrence of thrombosis of the vessel, as well as fragmentation and subsequent migration of particles of atheroma and thrombus together with blood flow in the system of arteries. It is fraught with disorders of blood circulation, and can cause dysfunction of vital organs such as the liver, kidney, heart, brain, and other.
Typically, atherosclerosis no pronounced symptoms up until the vessels are not that critical size 70 percent of their original form. The manifestation of symptoms is influenced by the degree of narrowing of the vessel, as well as complete blocking of blood flow in the patient vessel. In addition, it is important, in which blood pools is injured vessel.
If the development of atherosclerosis provokes the narrowing of the coronary arteries that supply the heart with blood, the patient begins to feel pain in the chest, the scientific name of which is angina. Cessation of blood flow and the occurrence of thrombosis in one of the coronary arteries leading to myocardial infarction.
In addition, due to atherosclerosis can begin irregularities in the heartbeat and heart failure, which pose a danger to life. In case of violation of the blood vessels in the brain there is the risk of stroke. The narrowing of the blood vessels that supply the lower limbs, causes lameness and seizures. Impaired circulation in the arteries of the kidneys can lead to kidney failure or malignant hypertension.
More than progressing atherosclerosis and narrowing of the Lumina of the vessels, the more disturbed blood supply to tissues and organs. In this case, the clinical symptoms of progressive atherosclerosis become more pronounced. One indicator of insufficient blood circulation, which leads to incomplete supply of oxygen to tissues, is a pain.
The greater increases in physical activity, the greater becomes the need of the organs and tissues of oxygen. But because of circulatory disorders of the organs and tissues do not get enough of the necessary nutrients and oxygen, the pain becomes more pronounced with increasing physical activity. As an illustrative example, the occurrence of cramps and pains in lower limbs, which are caused by poor blood circulation within their tissues. Often, when atherosclerosis his symptoms occurs and grows smoothly, but there is always the risk that atheroma will be broken and will thrombosis of the vessel, which completely block the flow of blood through the vessel, which will lead to stroke or heart attack.
1. High cholesterol in the blood
6. Physical inactivity
To prevent the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis should pay special attention to such factors as Smoking, elevated cholesterol in the blood, obesity, and physical inactivity.
Often, dangerous disease requiring urgent medical intervention, such as heart attack, stroke, angina, arrhythmia, cardiac and renal failure, arise due to progressive atherosclerosis.
How to identify a vessel damaged by atherosclerosis.
The doctor may diagnose the patient with the diagnosis of "atherosclerosis" only after service will be performed the following procedures:
Examination by a doctor
The collection of the patient's complaints and anamnesis
Angiography with the use of x-ray radiation and contrast agents
Magnetic resonance imaging
Methods of treating atherosclerosis
Today, there are 2 method of treatment of atherosclerosis: conservative and surgical. When conservative method, the emphasis is on the medical treatment of the patient, and when surgery is radical surgery or minimally invasive method. Method of treatment of atherosclerosis depends on the location of the damaged vessel, but also on the extent of the damage. How therapy can only choose a doctor based on patient data.