Unfortunately, the down syndrome continues to be a widespread disease. Meanwhile, scientists admit that they know very little about its causes. New research by geneticists from the United States helped to shed light on the processes that occur in the brain of patients suffering from this syndrome. Geneticists have discovered that there is an extra chromosome in the genome of patients with down syndrome, which causes a "block" of neurons, and because of which they form a few links with neighbouring other neurons in the brain.
Scientists have discovered it after he studied the structure, consisting of nerve cells and in his mind resembled the brain of the embryo. This model they were able to grow from stem cells, the genome of which contains the same extra chromosome. The result was that because of the extra chromosomes begin to form in large quantities proteins that provokes a failure in the activity of 1500 genes. This anomaly has resulted in decreased numbers of connections between nerve cells, leading, in turn, to the fact that the total number of synapses was 40% less than in the brain of a healthy child, RIA "Novosti".
Biologists have found that extra protein will lead to continuous oxidative stress on neurons. This creates stress for patients with down syndrome an additional negative consequence: premature aging and Alzheimer's disease.