Alcohol abstinence is a complex of symptoms, which includes neurological and psychopathological disorders in patients with alcoholism.
The emergence of this pathological condition is associated with a sudden cessation of alcohol consumption or reducing alcohol doses. It is worth noting that alcohol contributes temporary elimination or mitigation of the severity of this condition.
The pathogenesis of alcohol withdrawal syndrome consists of several pathophysiological mechanisms. It was found that ethanol provides greater braking action of gamma-aminobutyric acid. As a result, the excitability of the brain is reduced. Abrupt cessation of alcohol consumption leads to a significant reduction of the braking effect of ethanol on the Central nervous system. In addition, cessation of alcoholic beverages enhances the excitatory effect of glutamate. Abrupt withdrawal of alcohol is observed over certain parts of the brain. This is manifested by specific symptoms.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is characterized by the following asthenic and affective disorders:
1. The emergence of irritability, weakness, reduced health, abundant vegetative characteristics. In addition, marked tremor of the fingers and tongue. These symptoms indicate asthenic disorders.
2. Affective disorder presents with anxiety, vague fears, low mood, tantrums, etc.
The emergence of small symptoms perhaps even before the elimination of alcohol from the bloodstream. In some cases, the first sign of withdrawal symptoms are seizures. In the case of focal seizures or their development after 2 days from the last consumption of alcohol provides for the exclusion of other causes of seizures. First of all, we are talking about traumatic brain injury.
During alcohol abstinence there has been a violation night's sleep, shortening its duration. Sometimes the development of absolute insomnia. Quite often the appearance of nightmares. Severe cases occur with auditory and visual hallucinations.
For the most severe variants of the disease characterized by the development of epileptic seizures, exacerbation of concomitant pathologies and the emergence of alcoholic delirium.
Alcohol abstinence differentiate with thyrotoxicosis, overdose anticholinergic drugs, symptom cancel sedatives, etc.
Treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome
The goal of treatment of this disease is the prevention of severe complications and struggle with already developed violations.
Successful treatment of this disease involves the replacement of fluid deficit, restoring normal levels of electrolytes, ensuring proper diet. With this purpose, the use of infusion, vitamin and psychotropic therapy.
Infusion treatment is to excrete toxic substances, to normalize water-electrolyte and acid-base metabolism. In the early stages of alcohol abstinence shows the use of sorbents (activated carbon).
For treatment of seizures medications benzodiazepine series (chlordiazepoxide, diazepam). The elderly and patients with impaired liver function are used benzodiazepine short steps (lorazepam, oxazepam).
To respond to the excitement and the emergence of hallucinations, prescribe neuroleptics (haloperidol).