Addison disease is also called chronic insufficiency of the adrenal cortex. The occurrence of this pathology is associated with bilateral lesions of these organs. As a result, the secretion of adrenal hormones decreases or stops completely.
In most cases, Addison disease develops due to an autoimmune process. In addition, a fairly common cause is tuberculosis. It is worth noting that bronze disease is considered to be a sign of many inherited disorders.
The patients complained of the weakness and fatigue, decreased appetite, dyspepsia, muscle pain, reduced body temperature, sleep disorders and other causes of these symptoms is sugar starvation of tissues and lack of glycogen in the muscles and liver. These phenomena develop due to inadequate synthesis of corticosteroids and dehydration (decreased production of aldosterone). In some cases, there is melasma. We are talking about hyperpigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes. In the result of pathological changes in the skin becomes brown with a bronze tint.
The appearance of pigmentation possibly several years before the development of other symptoms. This process occurs due to the deposition of melanin in the skin and mucous membranes. The most pronounced pigment changes characteristic of open areas of the body, post-operative scars, natural deposits of melanin.
Hyperpigmentation due to increased ACTH production, which increases the secretion of melanophore hormone.
In some cases, the pigmentation is uneven and alternates with patches of vitiligo or leukoderma.
In addition, Addison disease is manifested cardiovascular disorders. Revealed hypotension, rhythm, muting, heart sounds, etc.
In some patients the development of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. In many cases, the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract ulcerated. These changes occur due to dehydration, capillaroscopy and disturbances of electrolyte balance.
Bronze disease may be complicated by adrenal crisis. This condition is characterized by sudden adrenal insufficiency in the form of vascular collapse, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, hypoglycemia, hyperthermia, etc.
It is worth noting that in the early stages of this disease is detected rarely. This is due to the slow development of symptoms and their invisibility. Factors that can trigger a crisis, are surgery, serious illness, etc.
With the help of blood tests is determined by the lack of corticosteroids and low sodium. Before determining the content of corticosteroid hormones is stimulation test with adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Mild form of the disease involves the periodic treatment of steroid hormones (prednisone, cortisone). Appointed a diet with a high carbohydrate content. It is recommended to take large doses of ascorbic acid.
In more severe cases, apply continuous hormonal therapy. In addition to this treatment are the mineralocorticoids (hypertension).
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To respond to acute adrenal insufficiency, conduct infusion therapy, which consists in the introduction of hydrocortisone, 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% glucose solution.