Leukemia called neoplastic clonal disease of the hematopoietic system. To the group of leukemia are different in the etiology of the disease. During leukemia immature hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow become producers of malignant clone.
Acute leukemia is a cancer that develops very quickly and during which the blood and in the bone marrow accumulate modified leukocytes. Acute leukemia there are several types: lymphocytic leukemia, occurring most often in children, and granulocytic leukemia, which can be found most often in adults.
In the first case of leukemia modified leukocytes collected in the bone marrow or lymph nodes, and in the case of granulocytic leukemia leukocytes accumulate in the bone marrow.
Causes of leukemia still remain unknown. There is an opinion, according to which there are some factors that make the risk of leukemia is higher. These are genetic disorders, problems with the immune system, exposure to radiation and some chemical substances that inhibit blood.
Upon the occurrence of acute leukemia in humans there is a high fever, body weakness and other symptoms that are similar to flu symptoms. Lymph nodes and liver and spleen, enlarged. You can feel the pain in the bones. Bad minimized blood from slight touch of bruises. Bleeding is responsible for the appearance of red or purple spots on the skin. Experience frequent infections, weakness progresses.
The occurrence of leukemia is often sudden and unexpected, especially in children. Initially the impression that it's the flu or a cold, but when you start to progress the symptoms that lead to deterioration and the appearance of pathological changes in the blood, it becomes clear that things are much worse than the flu.
Acute leukemia is a very dangerous disease, and in the absence of proper treatment it leads to certain death.
It should also be noted that prevention of leukemia does not exist. At the slightest suspicion leukemia, you should promptly consult a doctor, preferably an oncologist who has experience in the treatment of leukemia.
The duration of treatment of leukemia lasts, on average, two years. During treatment it is necessary to pay special attention to maintaining vitality as radiation and anticancer therapy accompanied by nausea and other side effects.
If early treatment is the probability that the patient will recover, above.
First of all, the physician should ensure that the client's symptoms are associated with leukemia, but not with anemia or with any infectious disease. For this it is necessary to hand over a blood on the analysis, and if he can show that in the blood and in the bone marrow found cells that are characteristic of leukemia, further research should be aimed at determining the type of leukemia and the respective treatment.
The diagnosis of leukemia is considered confirmed if, after several blood tests it is found pathologically increased the percentage of leukocytes. To secure the diagnosis of leukemia biopsy of bone marrow.
In that case, if the diagnosis of leukemia fully confirmed, there will be sessions of chemotherapy with the use of various drugs against tumors. This treatment aims to destroy tumor cells. Dose of drugs should be carefully chosen so that the tumor cells were destroyed, and at the same time not hurt healthy cells.
Treatment consists of several phases. The first phase is the induction therapy. This period of time, which lasts from 4 to 6 weeks, and during which the patient receives the most intensive treatment. Induction therapy usually brings about a remission of the disease, but it can be temporary, if not to continue treatment.
The second phase is to consolidate the obtained effect, and the aim at this stage is to destroy the cells that cause pathology, and who are present in the body. At this stage of treatment the patient receives special drugs that overcome possible resistance to therapy. Maintenance therapy lasts two to three years to secure the effect obtained from the first stage of treatment.
During the first stage of treatment the patient has to stay in hospital because of the risk of infection is great, as well as the probability of heavy bleeding. Used during treatment drugs inhibit the production of white blood cells, which can lead to frequent aggravation, and you may need frequent blood transfusions.
It is very common for successful treatment of leukemia may require transplantation of the patient's bone marrow. Bone marrow transplantation is a complex process during which blood cells are produced, is first exposed to radiation that destroys them, and then the new donor cells injected into the bone marrow, where healthy cells. In order to prevent the invasion of tumor cells by radiation therapy.
Currently, most cases of leukemia are curable. He successfully respond to therapy, especially in the case of children. More than 90% of cases achieved remission and 50% of patients live for five years or more after treatment.